Some new stuff on the origins of humanity and primates and the Earth’s long-term climate, and rock technology, and a recommendation for a British Museum podcast on 100 items from their collection, and an extinct pig the size of a small hippo. Check it.

Thorough Knowledge

I don’t know what I’m looking for. I suppose that I want to have a better grasp on how humans went from bands of apes to talking on the telephone.

Twas the Cenozoic Era…, (meaning the current geologic era which started 66 million years ago- when the dinosaurs died, so I should say, “Tis the Cenozoic Era” really). During the Eocene epoch, (55-35 mya), primates, similar to lemurs, emerge in the northern hemisphere during a period of global warming to secure daytime openings in the food-chain. * Then in the following epoch, the Oligocene (~35-22 mya), the presence of these prosimian primates fades in the less-forested areas throughout the world as the overall climate cooled, but they continue to exist in Africa.  During the next epoch, the Miocene (23-5 mya), the climate cooled further and forests declined. At this time, monkeys spread and branched out. About 20 mya…

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Rhind_Mathematical_PapyrusThe Rhind Papyrus is the best example of Egyptian mathematics and dates to  around 1650 BCE, but its contents date even further back. In its own introduction, the scribe, A’h-mose writes that he is copying material from 1849-1800 BCE. So four thousand years ago, the Egyptians were coming up with all sorts of fascinating materials. An excellent description of this papyrus is available in Eli Maor’s book, Trigonometric Delights, which is actually available online!

Egyptians wrote from right to left and used symbols to indicate numbers as shown below.


egyptian numbers copy


Maor, Eli (1998). Trigonometric DelightsPrinceton University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-691-09541-8


An artist's concept of Kepler-22b, a roughly Earth-size world orbiting within the habitable zone of a sun-like star 600 light years from Earth.

Earth-like planet found in distant sun’s habitable zone

For the first time, astronomers using NASA’s Kepler space telescope have confirmed a roughly Earth-size planet orbiting a sun-like star in the so-called “Goldilocks” zone where water can exist in liquid form on the surface and conditions may be favorable for life as it is known on Earth.

December 5, 2011

Ed Roberts, disabilities rights activist and pioneer

“Lives Worth Living” is an amazing documentary that has needed to exist for many years. When most of us think about the progress in the 20th century of civil rights we think of race and gender, and now sexual orientation and gender identity. We still often fail to acknowledge the extraordinary movement for rights for people with disabilities.

The film begins with the story of Ed Roberts, who contracted polio at the age of fourteen in 1953. This was two years before the discovery of the Salk vaccine would begin to bring an end to outbreaks of this debilitating illness. Ed was nearly completely paralyzed from the neck down with the exception of two fingers and a couple of toes. He slept in an iron lung at night.

He initially attended school by phone until his mother Zona challenged this mediocre offering and fought for him to attend at least one day a week. He was almost prevented from graduating from high school because he had not completed the physical and drivers education requirements.

His mother took it all the way to the state department of education to get his diploma.

He was admitted to University of California Berkeley, where “one of the UC Berkeley deans famously commented, “We’ve tried cripples before and it didn’t work;” but other Berkeley administrators supported his admission and expressed the opinion that, “the University should be doing more.”” He was forced to reside in the school’s infirmary because of the size of his iron lung, but convinced the administration to treat it like a dormitory, and eventually other students with disabilities joined him.

“The group developed a sense of identity and elan and began to formulate a political analysis of disability, they began calling themselves the “Rolling Quads” to the surprise of some non-disabled observers who had never before heard a positive sense of disability identity expressed before. In 1968 when two of the Rolling Quads were threatened with eviction from the Cowell Residence Program by an authoritarian Rehabilitation Counselor, the Rolling Quads organized a successful ‘revolt’ that led to the counselor’s transfer.

Their success on campus inspired the group to begin advocating for curb cuts, opening access to the wider community; and to create the Physically Disabled Student’s Program (PDSP) – the first student led disability services program in the country. Ed Roberts flew 3000 miles from California to Washington DC with no respiratory support in order to attend a conference at the start-up of the federal TRIO program through which the PDSP later secured funding. The PDSP provided services including attendant referral and wheelchair repair to students at the University, but it was soon taking calls from people with disabilities with the same concerns who were not students.

He earned B.A. (1964) and M.A. (1966) degrees from UC Berkeley in Political Science. He became an official Ph.D. Candidate (C.Phil.) in political science at Berkeley in 1969, but did not complete his Ph.D.

…The need to serve the wider community led to the creation of the Berkeley Center for Independent Living (CIL), the first independent living service and advocacy program run by and for people with disabilities.

From the documentary, his mother explains that “independent meant that Ed would choose the people who worked for him. He would choose when to go to bed and when to get up, what to wear, what to eat, where to go. that’s being independent and that’s the opposite of being in an institution…It’s a powerful concept.”

“It’s an integrated future.” Living together in the community.

“…He was teaching political science at an “alternative college,” but returned to Berkeley to assume leadership of the fledgling organization. He guided the CIL’s rapid growth during a decisive time for the emerging disability rights movement. The CIL provided a model for a new kind of community organization designed to address the needs and concerns of people with a wide range of disabilities.”

From his obituary in the New York Times:
“The CIL, which furthered a nuts-and-bolts approach to solving the problems of people with disabilities, including help in modifying cars and vans to enable them to drive. A referral service was organized to develop a pool of reliable aides to help disabled people bathe, eat and dress.

The group campaigned to remove provisions of Federal laws that discouraged the disabled from working. He also led campaigns demanding access to public transportation and seating aboard buses and trains.

In 1975, Gov. Edmund G. Brown Jr. of California named Mr. Roberts to head the State Department of Rehabilitation. As director until 1983, he oversaw a staff of more than 2,500 employees and a budget of $140 million. The department now finances 28 state independent-living centers based on models that he developed.

Mr. Roberts helped found the World Institute on Disability in 1983. He traveled to Russia, Australia, Japan and France to raise public awareness on the philosophy of independent living for the disabled. In 1984 he received a MacArthur Foundation grant that he used to pay for his activities with the institute.

In a 1991 book “Rescues: The Lives of Heroes,” the author, Michael Lesy, said Mr. Roberts was one of nine people who defined heroism. Mr. Lesy wrote, “What a black man like Bob Moses had been in the civil rights movement or a woman like Betty Friedan had been for the feminists, Ed Roberts was for the disabled.”

Roberts died on March 14, 1995, at the age of 56.”

Zona Roberts speaks to the crowd in front of the building named for her son

In 2011 a multi-agency independent living center, known as the Ed Roberts Campus, had its grand opening.

And the World Institute on Disability (WID) continues on with its mission “in communities and nations worldwide to eliminate barriers to full social integration and increase employment, economic security and health care for persons with disabilities. WID creates innovative programs and tools; conducts research, public education, training and advocacy campaigns; and provides technical assistance.”

The most recent news on their website details the production of “the blueprint for a set of self-directed learning tools on employment and benefits to support planning and decision-making for veterans, family members, and the people who work with them. These products make possible the planned development of a web-based, real-time benefits information service, Veterans Benefits 101. Founder Ed Roberts will be inducted into the California Hall of Fame at a ceremony on December 8, 2011 and part of an exhibition at the California Museum in Sacramento from Dec. 9, 2011 through Oct. 31, 2012.

They’ve got several ongoing projects but one that caught my eye is:

Georgian Wheelchair Production Network

Funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), WID’s International Program launched in 2009 a 3-year project in the Republic of Georgia. Working in partnership with Whirlwind Wheelchair International (WWI) and the Coalition for Independent Living in Georgia, along with their regional member organizations, the Association of Disabled Women and Mothers of Disabled Children in Zugdidi and the Association of Gori Disabled Club, the project is setting up a sustainable wheelchair production and repair facility in Tbilisi; a postural support seating and cushion service; networked wheelchair sales, distribution and repair businesses in Gori and Zugdidi; a mobility, self-care, and advocacy skills training system for

Wheelchair riders will be assessed, their final measurements recorded and wheelchairs will be made in order to fit the individual rider completely which is very important for wheelchair users.

men and women who use wheelchairs; and business and advocacy networks between disability communities in Georgia. The project will also conduct advocacy, public education, and community accessibility barrier removal activities in Tbilisi, Gori and Zugdidi. Most of the factory workers and advocacy team members are people with disabilities, and almost all are wheelchair users.

The factory will produce a minimum of 1,000 low-cost, high-quality Whirlwind RoughRider™ indoor-outdoor wheelchairs and, eventually, other assistive mobility devices for Georgian wheelchair users. The Association of Gori Disabled Club will make pressure relieving wheelchair cushions, and local professionals at the Children’s Center for Rehabilitation will be trained in adaptive seating and will fit and produce supported seating for children in wheelchairs.

The advocacy teams will conduct peer support groups, regional mobility and self-help skills camps for wheelchair users, and disability awareness and community access/barrier-removal trainings and roundtables to educate NGO staff, media professionals, teachers, government officials, lawyers, and architects about the need to improve community access; improve access to key public buildings by identifying and removing barriers; increase public awareness via organizing disability film exhibitions, media and poster competitions, and the production of a public education video to be shown at film exhibitions and on Georgian national television as well as a public service announcement for broadcast on local radio stations on community accessibility and a barrier-free environment; and host National Forums on Community Accessibility for government officials and lawmakers, professionals, media, and persons with mobility impairments and their families on issues and lessons learned in Georgia and to discuss strategies for implementation of legislation promoting a barrier free environment.”

Now that’s what I call a pretty damn good life!

Time lapse sequences of photographs taken with a special low-light 4K-camera
by the crew of expedition 28 & 29 onboard the International Space Station from
August to October, 2011.

HD, refurbished, smoothed, retimed, denoised, deflickered, cut, etc.

Music: Jan Jelinek | Do Dekor, faitiche back2001
w+p by Jan Jelinek, published by Betke Edition |

Editing: Michael König |

Image Courtesy of the Image Science & Analysis Laboratory,
NASA Johnson Space Center, The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

Shooting locations in order of appearance:

1. Aurora Borealis Pass over the United States at Night
2. Aurora Borealis and eastern United States at Night
3. Aurora Australis from Madagascar to southwest of Australia
4. Aurora Australis south of Australia
5. Northwest coast of United States to Central South America at Night
6. Aurora Australis from the Southern to the Northern Pacific Ocean
7. Halfway around the World
8. Night Pass over Central Africa and the Middle East
9. Evening Pass over the Sahara Desert and the Middle East
10. Pass over Canada and Central United States at Night
11. Pass over Southern California to Hudson Bay
12. Islands in the Philippine Sea at Night
13. Pass over Eastern Asia to Philippine Sea and Guam
14. Views of the Mideast at Night
15. Night Pass over Mediterranean Sea
16. Aurora Borealis and the United States at Night
17. Aurora Australis over Indian Ocean
18. Eastern Europe to Southeastern Asia at Night

From the Washington Post.

The top 10% are making over 40% more and the rest are making 1% less?
Nevermind the top 0.1% who are making 400% more.

That’s class warfare, no?

Especially since “the number of Americans living below the official poverty line, 46.2 million people, was the highest number in the 52 years the bureau has been publishing figures on it.” (NYTImes) (The poverty line in 2010 for a family of four was $22,314.)

As pointed out by Barbara Ehrenreich, author of Nickel and Dimed, this percentage of people in poverty should be added to those desperately struggling to get by living paycheck to paycheck. The working poor. These two groups combine to approximately half of the country. In fact, from her website,


Washington, DC — Only 25.2 percent of American workers have a job that pays at least $16 per hour and provides health insurance and a pension, according to a new study by the Center for Economic and Policy Research.

The report, “How Good is the Economy at Creating Good Jobs?” found that between 1979 and 2004 the share of American workers in good jobs remained unchanged at about 25 percent, despite strong economic growth over that period. (The report defines a “good job” as one that offers at least $16 per hour or $32,000 annually, employer-paid health insurance and a pension.) In the last quarter century, the U.S. workforce has become older, more experienced and better educated, but 75 percent of workers are still struggling in jobs that do not provide health insurance, a pension and solid middle-class wages.”

Since 1979, inflation-adjusted GDP per person increased 60 percent, but the percentage of workers in good jobs remained unchanged at about 25 percent.”

And there you have it. There is more money in the economy, it’s just that it’s all going to just a few people in positions of power.

What does it mean to lose a species from the earth? 

I think it is the loss of a kind of profound beauty. If each person that you meet is special and unique, (I know it sounds sappy, but I’m being sincere here) and their life is valuable and important to protect, then certainly you can extrapolate to each species having something remarkable, unique and important to say about living, survival, and beauty.

Defining beauty is nearly as impossible as defining happiness, and yet when someone tells you that you are beautiful, they are rarely describing solely your physical appearance. There is something compelling and remarkable about each individual and I think the positive, attractive elements of this are often described as beauty. It’s why every parent finds their own child beautiful, (excepting the mentally ill, crap parents of course. I hear you skeptical voices. I say, ‘pooh! pooh!’ to you!)

So the Javan Rhino is disappearing. And we lose a particular form of life that has a particular diet, appearance, life style, movement, texture, color, smell, and so on. Life is a little less bright because of it. 

It’s especially distressing to me because visually they are so unlike other animals! They appear to have plates of armor, although it’s just thick skin, and speckled shoulders and rumps that are super cute. The Indian Rhino has a similar armored appearance, but the Javan or Sunda Rhino is smaller.

From National Geographic:

The Javan rhinoceros is extinct in mainland Asia, conservationists announced this week.

An adult female Javan rhino was shot and killed in a Vietnamese forest last year—leaving just one wild population left of the species in the world, a group of fewer than 50 individuals in a small park in Indonesia. …

But habitat loss and widespread hunting slashed their numbers, so that by the latter half of the 20th century, the animal was believed to be extinct on mainland Asia.

In 1988, a population of 15 or fewer individuals was found in the Cat Tien region of Vietnam. Conservationists were hopeful that this population, though tiny, could recover, based on the success of Africa’s southern white rhino.

Southern white rhinos had been poached to only about 20 individuals by the late 19th century, but due to intense conservation efforts, the population now numbers close to 20,000 animals.

Hopes were dashed, however, when a 2004 survey suggested that the Cat Tien population had been reduced to two individuals, both of them female.”

And now those two are dead, killed for their precious horns. 

From Wikipedia:

“Although belonging to the type genus, the Indian and Javan Rhinoceros are not believed to be closely related to other rhino species. … The Sumatran Rhino may have diverged from the other Asian rhinos as far back as 15 million years ago.”

Also, in looking for images of the Sunda or Javan Rhino, there are very few good images available. There are surprisingly many images in black and white and of dead rhinos, which is extremely macabre and disheartening. But I do love a good historic illustration.

And their cousin, the Indian Rhino, isn’t faring much better. “The Indian rhinoceros once ranged throughout the entire stretch of the Indo-Gangetic Plain but excessive hunting reduced their natural habitat drastically. Today, about 3,000 rhinos live in the wild, 2,000 of which are found in India’s Assam alone.”